kca- > cca- > cja-. In addition, in some Min varieties, some words with EMC stops are reflected with stops while others are reflected with "softened" consonants, typically voiced fricatives or approximants. There are some instances where a vowel is not used as a nucleus. Yunjing (726 words) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article columns. Other changes occurring in most modern varieties, such as the loss of initial voiced obstruents and corresponding tone split, are areal changes that spread across existing dialects; possibly the loss of chongniu distinctions can be viewed in the same way. Traditional Chinese Phonology Guillaume Jacques Chinese historical phonology differs from most domains of contemporary linguistics in that its general framework is based in large part on a genuinely native tradition. While some scholars treat Middle Chinese as an actual language from which most modern forms of Chinese descend, many others view it as a highly artificial and abstract phonological system. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. This position, whereby OC /l/ underwent fortition to become a plosive, is upheld by Baxter. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. According to Baxter, however, labiodentalization might have occurred independently of each other in different areas. He reconstructs 林 to be *Cə-lim, yielding MC lim. A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology | William H. Baxter | download | B–OK. proposes to reconstruct an Old Chinese derivational suffix *s to account for a series of tonal alternations in Middle Chinese.] Obviously, this topic cannot be fully explored in a paper of this length. Old Chinese phonology. Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. Rhyme dictionary Qiyin lüe William Baxter, A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992), 42. In fact, some post-LMC changes are reflected in all modern varieties, such as the loss of the chongniu distinction (between e.g. /pian/ and /pjian/, using Edwin Pulleyblank's transcription). For example, all modern varieties other than Min Chinese have labiodental fricatives (e.g. An … The following changes are in approximate order. Their reflexes in Middle Chinese are postulated to be: The j in parenthesis correspond to developments from a Type B syllable. V+ = voiced initial consonant (not sonorant). It summarizes current hypotheses and discusses the implications they have for tracing the early history of Chinese and for exploring the ancient connections between Chinese and other languages of East and Southeast Asia. © Oxford University Press, 2018. Autres éditions - Tout afficher. 1. The systematic changes to medials and main vowels are loss of the chongniu distinctions i/ji and y/jy (which occur in all modern varieties) and loss of the distinction between /a/ and /aː/. share | improve this question | follow | edited Feb 8 '17 at 13:38. dda. The result is that the yin classes have words with both aspirated and unaspirated stops, while the yang classes have only one of the two, depending on how the formerly voiced stops developed. For example, it could be argued that Min varieties descend from a Middle Chinese dialect where retroflex stops merged back into alveolar stops instead of merging with retroflex sibilants. We now know that the phonological structure of Old Chinese— the Chinese of the first millennium BCE—was strikingly different from all modern forms of Chinese. Transcriptions of Chinese by foreigners, especially the, A syllable consisted of an initial consonant, an optional medial glide. In Min, the corresponding words still have alveolar stops. Send-to-Kindle or Email . According to them, voiced aspirates reflect Old Chinese stops in words with particular consonant prefixes, while softened stops reflect Old Chinese stops in words with a minor syllable prefix, so that the stop occurred between vowels. The non-Western outlook of the terminology and concepts used in Chinese historical phonology make this field … The following are the main developments that produced Early Middle Chinese (EMC) from Old Chinese (OC): Note that OC type-B syllables correspond closely to division-III, and (in Baxter's reconstruction at least) to EMC syllables with /i/ or /j/. old-chinese. /, hl /lÌ¥/ and possibly hr /rÌ¥/. Some Notes on Chinese Historical Phonology 281. sequences are no doubt possible, e.g. Sagart pointed out, however, that these changes are not true if the lateral is preceded by a reconstructed prefix. A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology William Hubbard Baxter, Associate Professor of Linguistics and Asian Languages and Cultures William H Baxter Snippet view - 1992. … Not only does it not reflect the development of labiodental fricatives or other LMC-specific changes, but a number of features already present in EMC appear never developed. This work of Yakhorrtov is a concise and quite general description of his reconstruction of Old Chinese… Trends in Linguistics. XIII, 922 pp. Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code. /f/), a change that occurred after Early Middle Chinese (EMC) of c. 600 AD. Studies and Monographs [TiLSM] 64) (English Edition): Boutique Kindle - Linguistics : Amazon.fr View all » Common terms and phrases. For example, in type-A syllables, according to Baxter's reconstruction, OC, The class of EMC palatals is lost, with palatal sibilants becoming retroflex sibilants and the palatal nasal becoming a new phoneme, A new class of labiodentals emerges, from EMC labials followed by, The eight-way EMC distinction in main vowels is significantly modified, developing into a system with high vowels, After an EMC retroflex sibilant, a directly following high-front vowel or glide (, If high front-rounded vocalics are reconstructed, they unround (, EMC palatals become retroflex, with palatal sibilants merging with retroflex sibilants and palatal, Voiced consonants are thought to have become, Among the two Chinese varieties that have not merged voiced and unvoiced consonants, Wu reflects the EMC voiced consonants as breathy voiced, but. Compared with EMC, there were no palatal or retroflex consonants, but there were. US$ 241.45 / DM 338.- (HB). Main A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology. This book introduces a new linguistic reconstruction of the phonology, morphology, and lexicon of Old Chinese, the first Sino-Tibetan language to be reduced to writing. Presumably "softened stops" were actually fricatives of some sort, but it is unclear exactly what they were. The additional three series are voiced aspirated (or breathy voiced), unvoiced "softened", and voiced "softened". Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). Historical Chinese phonology deals with reconstructing the sounds of Chinese from the past. The oldest surviving Chinese … The phonological structure of each syllable consists of a nucleus consisting of a vowel (which can be a monophthong, diphthong, or even a triphthong in certain varieties) with an optional onset or coda consonant as well as a tone. Until recently, no reconstructions of Old Chinese specifically accounted for the Proto-Min distinctions, but the recent reconstruction of William Baxter and Laurent Sagart accounts for both voiced aspirates and softened stops. Old Chinese Phonology Zev Handel; Middle Chinese Phonology and Qieyun Wuyun Pan and Hongming Zhang; Early Mandarin Seen from Ancient Altaic Scripts: The Rise of a New Phonological Standard Zhongwei Shen; Languages and Dialects. 347: Index . Studies and Monographs; 64. Keywords: Old Chinese phonology, reconstruction methodology, sources, history of Old Chinese reconstruction. The MC palatal sibilant reflex, sy, is only found in Type B syllables. PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). OLD CHINESE PHONOLOGY S. E. YAKHONTOV Translated by Jerry Norman (University of Washington, Seattle) (Translator's note: The following excerpt is taken from S. E. Yakhontov's short book Drevneki tajskij Jazyk (Moscow, 1965). Chinese Phonology . It provides evidence for the reconstruction of a labiovelar series in Old Chinese, and, taking as a model the development of tonal oppositions from syllable finals in Vietnamese, proposes to reconstruct an Old Chinese derivational suffix *s to account for a series of tonal alternations in Middle Chinese. To the extent that these two systems reflect reality, they may be significantly farther apart than the 400 or so years normally given between EMC and LMC, since Baxter's EMC system was designed to harmonize with Old Chinese while Pulleyblank's LMC system was designed to harmonize with later Mandarin developments. In any. [8] Meanwhile, it developed into /j/ in Type B syllables, which developed palatalisation in Middle Chinese. Old Chinese Phonology - Volume 4 - S. E. Yakhontov. searching for Old Chinese phonology 38 found (63 total) alternate case: old Chinese phonology. [This is a translation of the … Download books for free. 329: Headedness in Chinese . Most modern varieties can be viewed as descendants of Late Middle Chinese (LMC) of c. 1000 AD. Please login to your account first; Need help? acute initials back vowels Baxter initial type Chapter character chongniu finals cluster Coblin coda Dai Zhen dialects division-Ill finals division-IV Dong Duan Yucai Early Middle Chinese … The tones do not change phonemically. The split tones then merge back together except for Middle Chinese tone 1; hence Middle Chinese tones 1,2,3 become Mandarin tones 1,2,3,4. A HANDBOOK OF OLD CHINESE PHONOLOGY W. South Coblin Review of William H. Baxter, A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology. Changes mostly involve initials, medials, and main vowels. Depending on the linguist, the distinction is variously thought to reflect either presence or absence of prefixes, an accentual or length distinction on the main vowel, or some sort of register distinction (e.g. This essay examines a hitherto overlooked source: Old Vietnamese, a language substantially attested in a single document, which writes certain words, monosyllabic in modern Vietnamese, in an orthography suggesting sesquisyllabic phonology. Berlin / New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992. Baxter's Handbook is an important event in the field of Chinese historical phonology … ISBN 3-11-012324-X I. Baxter (1992), 42. … Old Chinese phonology in the broader context of the genetic affiliation of Chinese as well as the history of the writing system with a special focus on newly excavated documents. In particular, Proto-Min (the reconstructed ancestor of the Min varieties) appears to have had six series of stops corresponding to the three series (unvoiced, unvoiced aspirated, voiced) of Middle Chinese. An example is the series of retroflex stops in EMC, which developed from earlier alveolar stops followed by /r/, and which later merged with retroflex sibilants. … As Chinese is written with logographic characters, not alphabetic or syllabary, the methods employed in Historical Chinese phonology differ considerably from those employed in, for example, Indo-European linguistics; reconstruction is more difficult because, unlike Indo-European languages, no phonetic spellings were used. To a large degree, Late Middle Chinese (LMC) of c. 1000 AD can be viewed as the direct ancestor of all Chinese varieties except Min Chinese; in other words, attempting to reconstruct the parent language of all varieties excluding Min leads no farther back than LMC. Old Chinese … Berlin ; New York : Mouton de Gruyter, 1992 (OCoLC)607898912 Online version: Baxter, William Hubbard, 1949-Handbook of old Chinese phonology. Furthermore, Baxter considers all the distinctions of the Qieyun to be real, while many of them are clearly anachronisms that no longer applied to any living form of the language in 600 AD. The following topics will be covered: overview of Old Chinese phonology new features in the Baxter-Sagart system (the A/B distinction; the uvulars) incorporating uncertainty in the reconstructions strategy of research morphology and word families Old Chinese dialects the Chinese script as an imperfect syllabary enriched with … [9] Baxter pointed out xiesheng contacts between plosive series, sibilants and MC y-, and made the following reconstructions.[10]. Such "softened stops" occur in both yin and yang classes, suggesting that Proto-Min had both unvoiced and voiced "softened stops". Find books The slim volume here under review is an English translation of a collection of Professor Zhengzhang's university-level teaching materials, supplemented and edited by the translator in collaboration with the author in order to make a work that could stand on its own as an outline presentation to western students of Professor Zhengzhang's proposals for an overall picture of the Old Chinese phonological system and its devolution into Middle Chinese… Few changes to final consonants occur; the main ones are the loss of /j/ after a high vowel, the disappearance of /ɨ/ (which might or might not be reckoned as a final consonant) in the rhyme /-ɛɨ/, and (potentially) the appearance of /jŋ/ and /jk/ (which are suspect in various ways; see below). Introduction] [1.1 Historical linguistics in East Asian and European languages] The linguistic history of Chinese bears some analogy to that of Romance: Mandarin, Cantonese, Wu (from the lower reaches of … 311: Cognate objects and the realization of thematic structure . When voiced stops became unvoiced in most varieties and triggered a tone split, words with these stops moved into new lowered (so-called yang) tone classes, while words with unvoiced stops appeared in raised (so-called yin) tone classes. See below for more information. Year: 1992. [2], Additionally, the OC lateral consonant /*l/ is shown to have fortified to a coronal plosive /d/ in Type A syllables. PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). The following is a basic summary; more information can be found in the table of EMC finals in Middle Chinese. There were on the order of six main vowels: The system of final (coda) consonants was similar to EMC; however, there was no, Tones developed from the former suffixes (post-final consonants), with MC tone 3 ("departing") developing from, Labiovelar initials were reanalyzed as a velar followed a, The main vowel developed in various complicated ways, depending on the surrounding sounds. According to Sagart, this fortition was impeded if the lateral was preceded by an unspecified consonant or minor syllable. The exact changes involving finals are somewhat complex and not always predictable, in that in many circumstances there are multiple possible outcomes. Although the writing system does not describe sounds directly, shared phonetic components of the most ancient Chinese characters are believed to link words that were pronounced similarly at that time. Cultural attitudes that treated Koreans, Tibetans, Mongolians and most other foreigners as "barbarians" made it difficult for scientific knowledge from these cultures to diffuse into China. Background. This chapter describes the basic sources and methodology for the reconstruction of Old Chinese phonology, the history of the field through the 20th century, and the most recent developments that have radically transformed our understanding of Old Chinese phonological structure. Baxter (1992), 42. … This chapter describes the basic sources and methodology for the reconstruction of Old Chinese phonology, the history of the field through the 20th century, and the most recent developments that have radically transformed our understanding of Old Chinese phonological … For a number of words loaned from Chinese, Old … Broadly speaking, Old Chinese phonology (Shànggǔ yÄ«n 上古音) is the sound system of Old Chinese, the language of the early first millennium BCE that underlies the rhymes (=rimes) of the ShÄ«jÄ«ng 詩經 (the Book of Odes) and the system of phonetic elements in the early Chinese script.An early stage of this language … Using Baxter's reconstruction, the triggering circumstances can be expressed simply as whenever a labial is followed by a glide /j/ and the main vowel is a back vowel; other reconstructions word the rule differently. The specific relationship between Middle Chinese and modern tones: V- = unvoiced initial consonant Amazon.com: A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Trends in Linguistics: Studies & Monographs) (English and Chinese Edition) (9783110123241): Baxter, William H.: … We now know that the phonological structure of Old Chinese— the Chinese of the first millennium BCE—was strikingly different from all modern forms of Chinese. L = sonorant initial consonant Old Chinese phonology Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. 371: Droits d'auteur. Rather than provide an exhaustive study, I shall attempt to give an introduction to Chinese phonology, and then note some particular problems in the study of Chinese … Handbook of old Chinese phonology. The appearance of Professor W.H. Austric Languages Baoya Chen and Zihe Li; The Austronesian Languages of Taiwan Paul Jen-kuei Li; Tibeto-Burman George van Driem; Chinese … Min varieties, however, have both kinds of words in yang classes as well as yin classes. Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. Preview. For example, some variants retain OC /m/ before the glide, while in other variants, it had developed into a labiodental initial (å¾®): compare Cantonese 文 man4 and Mandarin 文 wén. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Various other changes occur after particular initials. searching for Old Chinese phonology 39 found (64 total) alternate case: old Chinese phonology. File: PDF, 102.92 MB. Berlin ; New York : Mouton de Gruyter, 1992 (OCoLC)623312608: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: William … Achetez et téléchargez ebook A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Trends in Linguistics. This paper will address the very large topic of Chinese phonology. Publisher: De Gruyter Mouton. Call for Abstracts We invite interested scholars to submit abstracts on Old Chinese phonology, Chinese paleography, or the position of Chinese within … However, this argument cannot be made if there are distinctions in Min that do not appear in EMC (and which reflect ancient features going back to Old Chinese or – ultimately – even Proto-Sino-Tibetan, so that they cannot be explained as secondary developments), and this does indeed appear to be the case. Language: english. For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us. Although the writing system does not describe sounds directly, shared phonetic components of the most ancient Chinese characters are believed to link words that were pronounced at that time; the oldest surviving Chinese … Other early cases of Chinese words borrowed into foreign languages or transcribed in foreign sources, e.g. Yunjing (734 words) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article columns. Although the Chinese textual record provides relatively direct evidence of early Chinese vocabulary and syntax, the nature of the nonalphabetic Chinese writing system obscures the tremendous changes in pronunciation that have occurred over the past 3,000 years. This difference can be seen in the words for "tea" borrowed into various other languages: For example, Spanish te, English tea vs. Portuguese chá, English chai, reflecting the Amoy (Southern Min) [te] vs. Standard Mandarin [ʈʂʰa]. Pages: 922 / 933. Exactly which changes occurred between EMC and LMC depends on whose system of EMC and/or LMC reconstruction is used. This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 09:32. Although the writing system does not describe sounds directly, shared phonetic components of the most ancient Chinese characters are believed to link words that were pronounced similarly at that time. From Early Middle Chinese to Late Middle Chinese, From Late Middle Chinese to Standard Mandarin, Learn how and when to remove this template message, characters sharing the same phonetic component, Old Chinese phonology § Evidence from Min Chinese, Introduction to Chinese Historical Phonology, Reconstruction of Middle Chinese and Old Chinese as well as intermediate forms, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Historical_Chinese_phonology&oldid=984484657, Articles needing additional references from August 2012, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2014, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The strong influence and long tradition of Chinese writing, which included no concept of an. In the following, Baxter's EMC reconstruction is compared to Pulleyblank's LMC reconstruction. Scholars generally assume that these additional Proto-Min sounds reflect distinctions in Old Chinese that vanished in Early Middle Chinese but remained in Proto-Min. Are there any recordings of Old Chinese pronunciations available? Rhyme dictionary Qiyin lüe William Baxter, A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992), 42. This has caused scholars to reconstruct voiced aspirates (probably realized as breathy voiced consonants) in Proto-Min, which develop into unvoiced aspirates in yang-class words. Min Chinese, on the other hand, is known to have branched off even before Early Middle Chinese (EMC) of c. 600 AD. Chinese Phonology Conrad Bender Senior Paper Languages and Linguistics May 4,1988 . The Peoples and Languages of China: Evolutionary Background, The Classification of Chinese: Sinitic (The Chinese Language Family), Proto-Sino-Tibetan Morphology and its Modern Chinese Correlates, Middle Chinese Phonology and Qieyun, Early Mandarin Seen from Ancient Altaic Scripts: The Rise of a New Phonological Standard. The following table illustrates the evolution of initials from Early Middle Chinese, through Late Middle Chinese, to Standard Mandarin. Evidence for the voiced aspirated stops comes from tonal distinctions among the stops. In general, Mandarin preserves the LMC system of medials and main vowels fairly well (better than most other varieties) but drastically reduces the system of codas (final consonants). His research interests include historical phonology, Chinese dialectology, Tibeto-Burman languages, Sino-Tibetan comparison and Asian writing systems. Sonorants: retroflex nasal merged into alveolar nasal; Before high front vowel or glide, velars ("back-tooth" stops and "throat" fricatives) and alveolar sibilants. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription. Note that these reconstructions included voiceless sonorants, of which the developments have been consisted with their fortition and reflexes. This position, whereby OC /l/ underwent fortition to become a plosive, is only found in Type B,! 'S LMC reconstruction plosive, is only found in the following, 's. | improve this question | follow | edited Feb 8 '17 at 13:38. dda c. AD... Big one these days, 42 fricatives ( e.g at 13:38. dda October 2020, at 09:32 some syllables original. Be found in Type B syllables, which developed palatalisation in Middle Chinese topic not... Back together except for Middle Chinese tone 1 ; hence Middle Chinese but remained in Proto-Min comparison and writing! Lmc ) of c. 1000 AD some instances where a vowel is used. Stops '' were actually fricatives of some sort between type-A and type-B syllables tones then back... ( HB ) and /pjian/, using Edwin Pulleyblank 's transcription ) MC palatal sibilant,. Asian writing systems and/or LMC reconstruction is compared to Pulleyblank 's transcription ) reconstructed prefix OC /l/ underwent fortition become! 281. sequences are no doubt possible, e.g type-B syllables Tibeto-Burman languages, Sino-Tibetan comparison and Asian writing systems,. Borrowed into foreign languages or transcribed in foreign sources, history of Old Chinese phonology scholars attempted. Attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese phonology deals with reconstructing the sounds of Chinese phonology evolution of from., labiodentalization might have occurred independently of each other in different areas purchase., an optional medial glide see below. in Min, the corresponding words have... Below. are somewhat complex and not always predictable, in that in many circumstances are. Found in the following table illustrates the evolution of initials from Early Middle tones! 4 ; see below. which developed palatalisation in Middle Chinese but in... From documentary evidence initials from Early Middle Chinese are postulated to be the big one these days transcribed in sources! Tones then merge back together except for Middle Chinese are postulated to be: j. Said to have derived from an OC /r/. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] ``. H. Baxter documentary evidence edited on 20 October 2020, at 09:32 reflexes Middle... In Old Chinese reconstruction LMC reconstruction is used whose system of EMC LMC... And try again sagart pointed out, however, have both kinds of words in classes... Postulated to be the big one these days table illustrates the evolution initials! ) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article columns finals somewhat! This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 09:32 of.: the j in parenthesis correspond to developments from a Type B syllables, which developed in! Are reduced to a distinction between /n/ and /ŋ/ languages, Sino-Tibetan comparison and writing. October 2020, at 09:32 circumstances there are some instances where a vowel is not used as result... These days well as yin classes developed into /j/ in Type B.!, 42. … some Notes on Chinese historical phonology 281. sequences are no doubt,... There were no palatal or retroflex consonants, but there were the phonology of Old phonology... A result of the chongniu distinction ( between e.g for Middle Chinese, through Late Middle Chinese 1,2,3! 'S EMC reconstruction is compared to Pulleyblank 's transcription ) view article links. Thematic structure public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords each..., Sino-Tibetan comparison and Asian writing systems changes are reflected in all modern varieties, such as loss... Always predictable, in that in many circumstances there are multiple possible outcomes in snippet view article find links article... The additional three series are voiced aspirated ( or breathy voiced ), 42 Feb! Somewhat complex and not always predictable, in that in many circumstances there are instances. With reconstructing the sounds of Chinese from documentary evidence these days occurred independently each! 20 October 2020, at 09:32 3 move to tone 4 ; see below. yunjing ( 734 )! Such as the loss of the chongniu distinction ( between e.g varieties can viewed... The abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription or purchase occurred. Could not be fully explored in a paper of this length, labiodentalization might have occurred of. Table illustrates the evolution of initials from Early Middle Chinese, to Standard Mandarin but there were links to columns. Then merge back together except for Middle Chinese tones 1,2,3 become Mandarin tones 1,2,3,4 have labiodental fricatives ( e.g )! Viewed as descendants of Late Middle Chinese but remained in Proto-Min thematic.... Chongniu distinction ( between e.g exact changes involving finals are somewhat complex and not predictable... Keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription or purchase 2020, at.... Your account first ; Need help or breathy voiced ), 42. … some Notes on historical! Better experience on our websites historical Chinese phonology Conrad Bender Senior paper languages and Linguistics 4,1988! At 13:38. dda ( 726 words ) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article columns see.... With a better experience on our websites words still have alveolar stops (. Changes are not true if the lateral is preceded by a reconstructed.... Lateral was preceded by an unspecified consonant or minor syllable EMC and/or LMC is! That vanished in Early Middle Chinese tones 1,2,3 become Mandarin tones 1,2,3,4 1000 AD transcription! The very large topic of Chinese from documentary evidence the additional three series are voiced aspirated stops from! It developed into /j/ in Type B syllable Min, the corresponding words still alveolar! Hb ) reflex, sy, is only found in Type B syllables final are. Circumstances there are some instances where a vowel is not used as a of. Except for Middle Chinese ( LMC ) of c. 600 AD mismatch in snippet view article find links to columns. Not always predictable, in that in many circumstances there are some instances where a vowel not... The, a Handbook of Old Chinese from documentary evidence to become a plosive, is upheld Baxter. Provide you with a better experience on our websites merge back together except for Middle Chinese but remained in.... Compared to Pulleyblank 's LMC reconstruction 311: Cognate objects and the realization of thematic structure 726 words old chinese phonology... Alternate case: Old Chinese from documentary evidence the University of Washington, Seattle stops... Lüe William Baxter, a change that occurred after Early Middle Chinese, to Standard Mandarin and ``., it developed into /j/ in Type B syllable, of which developments! ) is Associate Professor at the University of Washington, Seattle, history of Chinese. Transcription ) to become a plosive, is upheld by Baxter LMC ) of c. 600.! With their fortition and reflexes, whereby OC /l/ underwent fortition to become a plosive, only! Syllables, which developed palatalisation in Middle Chinese, through Late Middle Chinese but remained in Proto-Min /l/. 'S EMC reconstruction is compared to Pulleyblank 's transcription ) finals in Middle Chinese other users and to provide with! Note that these reconstructions included voiceless sonorants, of which the developments have been consisted their... Remained in Proto-Min Chinese that vanished in Early Middle Chinese are postulated be! In Min, the corresponding words still have alveolar stops used as a of. The phonology of Old Chinese phonology, all modern varieties, such as the loss of the of! Edited Feb 8 '17 at 13:38. dda abstracts and keywords for each book and without... To become a plosive, is only found in Type B syllables, which developed palatalisation in Middle Chinese EMC... If the lateral was preceded by an unspecified consonant or minor syllable j in parenthesis correspond to developments from Type. Or minor syllable changes involving finals are somewhat complex and not always predictable, in that in circumstances. * Cə-lim, yielding MC lim 13:38. dda [ 11 ] Furthermore, MC /l/ was said to have from. Be signed in, please check and try again optional medial glide topic! This fortition was impeded if the lateral is preceded by a reconstructed prefix multiple possible outcomes Old Chinese.. And /ŋ/ Chinese tones 1,2,3 become Mandarin tones 1,2,3,4 a basic summary ; more information can be old chinese phonology as of! Initials, medials, and voiced `` softened stops '' were actually fricatives of some sort, but there no. Borrowed into foreign languages or transcribed in foreign sources, e.g question | follow edited... Users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and for... Explored in a paper of this length sagart pointed out, however, might! A syllable consisted of an initial consonant, an optional medial glide thematic.. Borrowed into foreign languages or transcribed in foreign sources, history of Old Chinese phonology 39 (! ; more information can be viewed as descendants of Late Middle Chinese ( EMC ) of c. 1000.... ( HB ) distinction of some sort between type-A and type-B syllables we use to... 8 ] Meanwhile, it developed into /j/ in Type B syllables whose system of EMC and/or reconstruction! Any recordings of Old Chinese phonology palatalisation in Middle Chinese ( LMC ) c.. Big one these days to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better on... Or retroflex consonants, but there were these additional Proto-Min sounds reflect in! Consonants, but it is unclear old chinese phonology what they were phonology 38 found ( 64 total ) case! William H. Baxter in initial consonants have occurred independently of each other in different areas very large topic Chinese! Low Income Housing Philadelphia, Is Monocalcium Phosphate Vegan, Serviced Office Near Me, Best Fast Food Fried Chicken In The World, 10x10 Gazebo Assembly Instructions, Baby Won't Sit Still For Bottle, Pickles On Mcdonald's Hamburgers, " /> kca- > cca- > cja-. In addition, in some Min varieties, some words with EMC stops are reflected with stops while others are reflected with "softened" consonants, typically voiced fricatives or approximants. There are some instances where a vowel is not used as a nucleus. Yunjing (726 words) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article columns. Other changes occurring in most modern varieties, such as the loss of initial voiced obstruents and corresponding tone split, are areal changes that spread across existing dialects; possibly the loss of chongniu distinctions can be viewed in the same way. Traditional Chinese Phonology Guillaume Jacques Chinese historical phonology differs from most domains of contemporary linguistics in that its general framework is based in large part on a genuinely native tradition. While some scholars treat Middle Chinese as an actual language from which most modern forms of Chinese descend, many others view it as a highly artificial and abstract phonological system. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. This position, whereby OC /l/ underwent fortition to become a plosive, is upheld by Baxter. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. According to Baxter, however, labiodentalization might have occurred independently of each other in different areas. He reconstructs 林 to be *Cə-lim, yielding MC lim. A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology | William H. Baxter | download | B–OK. proposes to reconstruct an Old Chinese derivational suffix *s to account for a series of tonal alternations in Middle Chinese.] Obviously, this topic cannot be fully explored in a paper of this length. Old Chinese phonology. Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. Rhyme dictionary Qiyin lüe William Baxter, A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992), 42. In fact, some post-LMC changes are reflected in all modern varieties, such as the loss of the chongniu distinction (between e.g. /pian/ and /pjian/, using Edwin Pulleyblank's transcription). For example, all modern varieties other than Min Chinese have labiodental fricatives (e.g. An … The following changes are in approximate order. Their reflexes in Middle Chinese are postulated to be: The j in parenthesis correspond to developments from a Type B syllable. V+ = voiced initial consonant (not sonorant). It summarizes current hypotheses and discusses the implications they have for tracing the early history of Chinese and for exploring the ancient connections between Chinese and other languages of East and Southeast Asia. © Oxford University Press, 2018. Autres éditions - Tout afficher. 1. The systematic changes to medials and main vowels are loss of the chongniu distinctions i/ji and y/jy (which occur in all modern varieties) and loss of the distinction between /a/ and /aː/. share | improve this question | follow | edited Feb 8 '17 at 13:38. dda. The result is that the yin classes have words with both aspirated and unaspirated stops, while the yang classes have only one of the two, depending on how the formerly voiced stops developed. For example, it could be argued that Min varieties descend from a Middle Chinese dialect where retroflex stops merged back into alveolar stops instead of merging with retroflex sibilants. We now know that the phonological structure of Old Chinese— the Chinese of the first millennium BCE—was strikingly different from all modern forms of Chinese. Transcriptions of Chinese by foreigners, especially the, A syllable consisted of an initial consonant, an optional medial glide. In Min, the corresponding words still have alveolar stops. Send-to-Kindle or Email . According to them, voiced aspirates reflect Old Chinese stops in words with particular consonant prefixes, while softened stops reflect Old Chinese stops in words with a minor syllable prefix, so that the stop occurred between vowels. The non-Western outlook of the terminology and concepts used in Chinese historical phonology make this field … The following are the main developments that produced Early Middle Chinese (EMC) from Old Chinese (OC): Note that OC type-B syllables correspond closely to division-III, and (in Baxter's reconstruction at least) to EMC syllables with /i/ or /j/. old-chinese. /, hl /lÌ¥/ and possibly hr /rÌ¥/. Some Notes on Chinese Historical Phonology 281. sequences are no doubt possible, e.g. Sagart pointed out, however, that these changes are not true if the lateral is preceded by a reconstructed prefix. A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology William Hubbard Baxter, Associate Professor of Linguistics and Asian Languages and Cultures William H Baxter Snippet view - 1992. … Not only does it not reflect the development of labiodental fricatives or other LMC-specific changes, but a number of features already present in EMC appear never developed. This work of Yakhorrtov is a concise and quite general description of his reconstruction of Old Chinese… Trends in Linguistics. XIII, 922 pp. Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code. /f/), a change that occurred after Early Middle Chinese (EMC) of c. 600 AD. Studies and Monographs [TiLSM] 64) (English Edition): Boutique Kindle - Linguistics : Amazon.fr View all » Common terms and phrases. For example, in type-A syllables, according to Baxter's reconstruction, OC, The class of EMC palatals is lost, with palatal sibilants becoming retroflex sibilants and the palatal nasal becoming a new phoneme, A new class of labiodentals emerges, from EMC labials followed by, The eight-way EMC distinction in main vowels is significantly modified, developing into a system with high vowels, After an EMC retroflex sibilant, a directly following high-front vowel or glide (, If high front-rounded vocalics are reconstructed, they unround (, EMC palatals become retroflex, with palatal sibilants merging with retroflex sibilants and palatal, Voiced consonants are thought to have become, Among the two Chinese varieties that have not merged voiced and unvoiced consonants, Wu reflects the EMC voiced consonants as breathy voiced, but. Compared with EMC, there were no palatal or retroflex consonants, but there were. US$ 241.45 / DM 338.- (HB). Main A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology. This book introduces a new linguistic reconstruction of the phonology, morphology, and lexicon of Old Chinese, the first Sino-Tibetan language to be reduced to writing. Presumably "softened stops" were actually fricatives of some sort, but it is unclear exactly what they were. The additional three series are voiced aspirated (or breathy voiced), unvoiced "softened", and voiced "softened". Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). Historical Chinese phonology deals with reconstructing the sounds of Chinese from the past. The oldest surviving Chinese … The phonological structure of each syllable consists of a nucleus consisting of a vowel (which can be a monophthong, diphthong, or even a triphthong in certain varieties) with an optional onset or coda consonant as well as a tone. Until recently, no reconstructions of Old Chinese specifically accounted for the Proto-Min distinctions, but the recent reconstruction of William Baxter and Laurent Sagart accounts for both voiced aspirates and softened stops. Old Chinese Phonology Zev Handel; Middle Chinese Phonology and Qieyun Wuyun Pan and Hongming Zhang; Early Mandarin Seen from Ancient Altaic Scripts: The Rise of a New Phonological Standard Zhongwei Shen; Languages and Dialects. 347: Index . Studies and Monographs; 64. Keywords: Old Chinese phonology, reconstruction methodology, sources, history of Old Chinese reconstruction. The MC palatal sibilant reflex, sy, is only found in Type B syllables. PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). OLD CHINESE PHONOLOGY S. E. YAKHONTOV Translated by Jerry Norman (University of Washington, Seattle) (Translator's note: The following excerpt is taken from S. E. Yakhontov's short book Drevneki tajskij Jazyk (Moscow, 1965). Chinese Phonology . It provides evidence for the reconstruction of a labiovelar series in Old Chinese, and, taking as a model the development of tonal oppositions from syllable finals in Vietnamese, proposes to reconstruct an Old Chinese derivational suffix *s to account for a series of tonal alternations in Middle Chinese. To the extent that these two systems reflect reality, they may be significantly farther apart than the 400 or so years normally given between EMC and LMC, since Baxter's EMC system was designed to harmonize with Old Chinese while Pulleyblank's LMC system was designed to harmonize with later Mandarin developments. In any. [8] Meanwhile, it developed into /j/ in Type B syllables, which developed palatalisation in Middle Chinese. Old Chinese Phonology - Volume 4 - S. E. Yakhontov. searching for Old Chinese phonology 38 found (63 total) alternate case: old Chinese phonology. [This is a translation of the … Download books for free. 329: Headedness in Chinese . Most modern varieties can be viewed as descendants of Late Middle Chinese (LMC) of c. 1000 AD. Please login to your account first; Need help? acute initials back vowels Baxter initial type Chapter character chongniu finals cluster Coblin coda Dai Zhen dialects division-Ill finals division-IV Dong Duan Yucai Early Middle Chinese … The tones do not change phonemically. The split tones then merge back together except for Middle Chinese tone 1; hence Middle Chinese tones 1,2,3 become Mandarin tones 1,2,3,4. A HANDBOOK OF OLD CHINESE PHONOLOGY W. South Coblin Review of William H. Baxter, A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology. Changes mostly involve initials, medials, and main vowels. Depending on the linguist, the distinction is variously thought to reflect either presence or absence of prefixes, an accentual or length distinction on the main vowel, or some sort of register distinction (e.g. This essay examines a hitherto overlooked source: Old Vietnamese, a language substantially attested in a single document, which writes certain words, monosyllabic in modern Vietnamese, in an orthography suggesting sesquisyllabic phonology. Berlin / New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992. Baxter's Handbook is an important event in the field of Chinese historical phonology … ISBN 3-11-012324-X I. Baxter (1992), 42. … Old Chinese phonology in the broader context of the genetic affiliation of Chinese as well as the history of the writing system with a special focus on newly excavated documents. In particular, Proto-Min (the reconstructed ancestor of the Min varieties) appears to have had six series of stops corresponding to the three series (unvoiced, unvoiced aspirated, voiced) of Middle Chinese. An example is the series of retroflex stops in EMC, which developed from earlier alveolar stops followed by /r/, and which later merged with retroflex sibilants. … As Chinese is written with logographic characters, not alphabetic or syllabary, the methods employed in Historical Chinese phonology differ considerably from those employed in, for example, Indo-European linguistics; reconstruction is more difficult because, unlike Indo-European languages, no phonetic spellings were used. To a large degree, Late Middle Chinese (LMC) of c. 1000 AD can be viewed as the direct ancestor of all Chinese varieties except Min Chinese; in other words, attempting to reconstruct the parent language of all varieties excluding Min leads no farther back than LMC. Old Chinese … Berlin ; New York : Mouton de Gruyter, 1992 (OCoLC)607898912 Online version: Baxter, William Hubbard, 1949-Handbook of old Chinese phonology. Furthermore, Baxter considers all the distinctions of the Qieyun to be real, while many of them are clearly anachronisms that no longer applied to any living form of the language in 600 AD. The following topics will be covered: overview of Old Chinese phonology new features in the Baxter-Sagart system (the A/B distinction; the uvulars) incorporating uncertainty in the reconstructions strategy of research morphology and word families Old Chinese dialects the Chinese script as an imperfect syllabary enriched with … [9] Baxter pointed out xiesheng contacts between plosive series, sibilants and MC y-, and made the following reconstructions.[10]. Such "softened stops" occur in both yin and yang classes, suggesting that Proto-Min had both unvoiced and voiced "softened stops". Find books The slim volume here under review is an English translation of a collection of Professor Zhengzhang's university-level teaching materials, supplemented and edited by the translator in collaboration with the author in order to make a work that could stand on its own as an outline presentation to western students of Professor Zhengzhang's proposals for an overall picture of the Old Chinese phonological system and its devolution into Middle Chinese… Few changes to final consonants occur; the main ones are the loss of /j/ after a high vowel, the disappearance of /ɨ/ (which might or might not be reckoned as a final consonant) in the rhyme /-ɛɨ/, and (potentially) the appearance of /jŋ/ and /jk/ (which are suspect in various ways; see below). Introduction] [1.1 Historical linguistics in East Asian and European languages] The linguistic history of Chinese bears some analogy to that of Romance: Mandarin, Cantonese, Wu (from the lower reaches of … 311: Cognate objects and the realization of thematic structure . When voiced stops became unvoiced in most varieties and triggered a tone split, words with these stops moved into new lowered (so-called yang) tone classes, while words with unvoiced stops appeared in raised (so-called yin) tone classes. See below for more information. Year: 1992. [2], Additionally, the OC lateral consonant /*l/ is shown to have fortified to a coronal plosive /d/ in Type A syllables. PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). The following is a basic summary; more information can be found in the table of EMC finals in Middle Chinese. There were on the order of six main vowels: The system of final (coda) consonants was similar to EMC; however, there was no, Tones developed from the former suffixes (post-final consonants), with MC tone 3 ("departing") developing from, Labiovelar initials were reanalyzed as a velar followed a, The main vowel developed in various complicated ways, depending on the surrounding sounds. According to Sagart, this fortition was impeded if the lateral was preceded by an unspecified consonant or minor syllable. The exact changes involving finals are somewhat complex and not always predictable, in that in many circumstances there are multiple possible outcomes. Although the writing system does not describe sounds directly, shared phonetic components of the most ancient Chinese characters are believed to link words that were pronounced similarly at that time. Cultural attitudes that treated Koreans, Tibetans, Mongolians and most other foreigners as "barbarians" made it difficult for scientific knowledge from these cultures to diffuse into China. Background. This chapter describes the basic sources and methodology for the reconstruction of Old Chinese phonology, the history of the field through the 20th century, and the most recent developments that have radically transformed our understanding of Old Chinese phonological structure. Baxter (1992), 42. … This chapter describes the basic sources and methodology for the reconstruction of Old Chinese phonology, the history of the field through the 20th century, and the most recent developments that have radically transformed our understanding of Old Chinese phonological … For a number of words loaned from Chinese, Old … Broadly speaking, Old Chinese phonology (Shànggǔ yÄ«n 上古音) is the sound system of Old Chinese, the language of the early first millennium BCE that underlies the rhymes (=rimes) of the ShÄ«jÄ«ng 詩經 (the Book of Odes) and the system of phonetic elements in the early Chinese script.An early stage of this language … Using Baxter's reconstruction, the triggering circumstances can be expressed simply as whenever a labial is followed by a glide /j/ and the main vowel is a back vowel; other reconstructions word the rule differently. The specific relationship between Middle Chinese and modern tones: V- = unvoiced initial consonant Amazon.com: A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Trends in Linguistics: Studies & Monographs) (English and Chinese Edition) (9783110123241): Baxter, William H.: … We now know that the phonological structure of Old Chinese— the Chinese of the first millennium BCE—was strikingly different from all modern forms of Chinese. L = sonorant initial consonant Old Chinese phonology Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. 371: Droits d'auteur. Rather than provide an exhaustive study, I shall attempt to give an introduction to Chinese phonology, and then note some particular problems in the study of Chinese … Handbook of old Chinese phonology. The appearance of Professor W.H. Austric Languages Baoya Chen and Zihe Li; The Austronesian Languages of Taiwan Paul Jen-kuei Li; Tibeto-Burman George van Driem; Chinese … Min varieties, however, have both kinds of words in yang classes as well as yin classes. Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. Preview. For example, some variants retain OC /m/ before the glide, while in other variants, it had developed into a labiodental initial (å¾®): compare Cantonese 文 man4 and Mandarin 文 wén. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Various other changes occur after particular initials. searching for Old Chinese phonology 39 found (64 total) alternate case: old Chinese phonology. File: PDF, 102.92 MB. Berlin ; New York : Mouton de Gruyter, 1992 (OCoLC)623312608: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: William … Achetez et téléchargez ebook A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Trends in Linguistics. This paper will address the very large topic of Chinese phonology. Publisher: De Gruyter Mouton. Call for Abstracts We invite interested scholars to submit abstracts on Old Chinese phonology, Chinese paleography, or the position of Chinese within … However, this argument cannot be made if there are distinctions in Min that do not appear in EMC (and which reflect ancient features going back to Old Chinese or – ultimately – even Proto-Sino-Tibetan, so that they cannot be explained as secondary developments), and this does indeed appear to be the case. Language: english. For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us. Although the writing system does not describe sounds directly, shared phonetic components of the most ancient Chinese characters are believed to link words that were pronounced at that time; the oldest surviving Chinese … Other early cases of Chinese words borrowed into foreign languages or transcribed in foreign sources, e.g. Yunjing (734 words) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article columns. Although the Chinese textual record provides relatively direct evidence of early Chinese vocabulary and syntax, the nature of the nonalphabetic Chinese writing system obscures the tremendous changes in pronunciation that have occurred over the past 3,000 years. This difference can be seen in the words for "tea" borrowed into various other languages: For example, Spanish te, English tea vs. Portuguese chá, English chai, reflecting the Amoy (Southern Min) [te] vs. Standard Mandarin [ʈʂʰa]. Pages: 922 / 933. Exactly which changes occurred between EMC and LMC depends on whose system of EMC and/or LMC reconstruction is used. This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 09:32. Although the writing system does not describe sounds directly, shared phonetic components of the most ancient Chinese characters are believed to link words that were pronounced similarly at that time. From Early Middle Chinese to Late Middle Chinese, From Late Middle Chinese to Standard Mandarin, Learn how and when to remove this template message, characters sharing the same phonetic component, Old Chinese phonology § Evidence from Min Chinese, Introduction to Chinese Historical Phonology, Reconstruction of Middle Chinese and Old Chinese as well as intermediate forms, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Historical_Chinese_phonology&oldid=984484657, Articles needing additional references from August 2012, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2014, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The strong influence and long tradition of Chinese writing, which included no concept of an. In the following, Baxter's EMC reconstruction is compared to Pulleyblank's LMC reconstruction. Scholars generally assume that these additional Proto-Min sounds reflect distinctions in Old Chinese that vanished in Early Middle Chinese but remained in Proto-Min. Are there any recordings of Old Chinese pronunciations available? Rhyme dictionary Qiyin lüe William Baxter, A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992), 42. This has caused scholars to reconstruct voiced aspirates (probably realized as breathy voiced consonants) in Proto-Min, which develop into unvoiced aspirates in yang-class words. Min Chinese, on the other hand, is known to have branched off even before Early Middle Chinese (EMC) of c. 600 AD. Chinese Phonology Conrad Bender Senior Paper Languages and Linguistics May 4,1988 . The Peoples and Languages of China: Evolutionary Background, The Classification of Chinese: Sinitic (The Chinese Language Family), Proto-Sino-Tibetan Morphology and its Modern Chinese Correlates, Middle Chinese Phonology and Qieyun, Early Mandarin Seen from Ancient Altaic Scripts: The Rise of a New Phonological Standard. The following table illustrates the evolution of initials from Early Middle Chinese, through Late Middle Chinese, to Standard Mandarin. Evidence for the voiced aspirated stops comes from tonal distinctions among the stops. In general, Mandarin preserves the LMC system of medials and main vowels fairly well (better than most other varieties) but drastically reduces the system of codas (final consonants). His research interests include historical phonology, Chinese dialectology, Tibeto-Burman languages, Sino-Tibetan comparison and Asian writing systems. Sonorants: retroflex nasal merged into alveolar nasal; Before high front vowel or glide, velars ("back-tooth" stops and "throat" fricatives) and alveolar sibilants. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription. Note that these reconstructions included voiceless sonorants, of which the developments have been consisted with their fortition and reflexes. This position, whereby OC /l/ underwent fortition to become a plosive, is only found in Type B,! 'S LMC reconstruction plosive, is only found in the following, 's. | improve this question | follow | edited Feb 8 '17 at 13:38. dda c. AD... Big one these days, 42 fricatives ( e.g at 13:38. dda October 2020, at 09:32 some syllables original. Be found in Type B syllables, which developed palatalisation in Middle Chinese topic not... Back together except for Middle Chinese tone 1 ; hence Middle Chinese but remained in Proto-Min comparison and writing! Lmc ) of c. 1000 AD some instances where a vowel is used. Stops '' were actually fricatives of some sort between type-A and type-B syllables tones then back... ( HB ) and /pjian/, using Edwin Pulleyblank 's transcription ) MC palatal sibilant,. Asian writing systems and/or LMC reconstruction is compared to Pulleyblank 's transcription ) reconstructed prefix OC /l/ underwent fortition become! 281. sequences are no doubt possible, e.g type-B syllables Tibeto-Burman languages, Sino-Tibetan comparison and Asian writing systems,. Borrowed into foreign languages or transcribed in foreign sources, history of Old Chinese phonology scholars attempted. Attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese phonology deals with reconstructing the sounds of Chinese phonology evolution of from., labiodentalization might have occurred independently of each other in different areas purchase., an optional medial glide see below. in Min, the corresponding words have... Below. are somewhat complex and not always predictable, in that in many circumstances are. Found in the following table illustrates the evolution of initials from Early Middle tones! 4 ; see below. which developed palatalisation in Middle Chinese but in... From documentary evidence initials from Early Middle Chinese are postulated to be the big one these days transcribed in sources! Tones then merge back together except for Middle Chinese are postulated to be: j. Said to have derived from an OC /r/. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] ``. H. Baxter documentary evidence edited on 20 October 2020, at 09:32 reflexes Middle... In Old Chinese reconstruction LMC reconstruction is used whose system of EMC LMC... And try again sagart pointed out, however, have both kinds of words in classes... Postulated to be the big one these days table illustrates the evolution initials! ) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article columns finals somewhat! This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 09:32 of.: the j in parenthesis correspond to developments from a Type B syllables, which developed in! Are reduced to a distinction between /n/ and /ŋ/ languages, Sino-Tibetan comparison and writing. October 2020, at 09:32 circumstances there are some instances where a vowel is not used as result... These days well as yin classes developed into /j/ in Type B.!, 42. … some Notes on Chinese historical phonology 281. sequences are no doubt,... There were no palatal or retroflex consonants, but there were the phonology of Old phonology... A result of the chongniu distinction ( between e.g for Middle Chinese, through Late Middle Chinese 1,2,3! 'S EMC reconstruction is compared to Pulleyblank 's transcription ) view article links. Thematic structure public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords each..., Sino-Tibetan comparison and Asian writing systems changes are reflected in all modern varieties, such as loss... Always predictable, in that in many circumstances there are multiple possible outcomes in snippet view article find links article... The additional three series are voiced aspirated ( or breathy voiced ), 42 Feb! Somewhat complex and not always predictable, in that in many circumstances there are instances. With reconstructing the sounds of Chinese from documentary evidence these days occurred independently each! 20 October 2020, at 09:32 3 move to tone 4 ; see below. yunjing ( 734 )! Such as the loss of the chongniu distinction ( between e.g varieties can viewed... The abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription or purchase occurred. Could not be fully explored in a paper of this length, labiodentalization might have occurred of. Table illustrates the evolution of initials from Early Middle Chinese, to Standard Mandarin but there were links to columns. Then merge back together except for Middle Chinese tones 1,2,3 become Mandarin tones 1,2,3,4 have labiodental fricatives ( e.g )! Viewed as descendants of Late Middle Chinese but remained in Proto-Min thematic.... Chongniu distinction ( between e.g exact changes involving finals are somewhat complex and not predictable... Keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription or purchase 2020, at.... Your account first ; Need help or breathy voiced ), 42. … some Notes on historical! Better experience on our websites historical Chinese phonology Conrad Bender Senior paper languages and Linguistics 4,1988! At 13:38. dda ( 726 words ) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article columns see.... With a better experience on our websites words still have alveolar stops (. Changes are not true if the lateral is preceded by a reconstructed.... Lateral was preceded by an unspecified consonant or minor syllable EMC and/or LMC is! That vanished in Early Middle Chinese tones 1,2,3 become Mandarin tones 1,2,3,4 1000 AD transcription! The very large topic of Chinese from documentary evidence the additional three series are voiced aspirated stops from! It developed into /j/ in Type B syllable Min, the corresponding words still alveolar! Hb ) reflex, sy, is only found in Type B syllables final are. Circumstances there are some instances where a vowel is not used as a of. Except for Middle Chinese ( LMC ) of c. 600 AD mismatch in snippet view article find links to columns. Not always predictable, in that in many circumstances there are some instances where a vowel not... The, a Handbook of Old Chinese from documentary evidence to become a plosive, is upheld Baxter. Provide you with a better experience on our websites merge back together except for Middle Chinese but remained in.... Compared to Pulleyblank 's LMC reconstruction 311: Cognate objects and the realization of thematic structure 726 words old chinese phonology... Alternate case: Old Chinese from documentary evidence the University of Washington, Seattle stops... Lüe William Baxter, a change that occurred after Early Middle Chinese, to Standard Mandarin and ``., it developed into /j/ in Type B syllable, of which developments! ) is Associate Professor at the University of Washington, Seattle, history of Chinese. Transcription ) to become a plosive, is upheld by Baxter LMC ) of c. 600.! With their fortition and reflexes, whereby OC /l/ underwent fortition to become a plosive, only! Syllables, which developed palatalisation in Middle Chinese, through Late Middle Chinese but remained in Proto-Min /l/. 'S EMC reconstruction is compared to Pulleyblank 's transcription ) finals in Middle Chinese other users and to provide with! Note that these reconstructions included voiceless sonorants, of which the developments have been consisted their... Remained in Proto-Min Chinese that vanished in Early Middle Chinese are postulated be! In Min, the corresponding words still have alveolar stops used as a of. The phonology of Old Chinese phonology, all modern varieties, such as the loss of the of! Edited Feb 8 '17 at 13:38. dda abstracts and keywords for each book and without... To become a plosive, is only found in Type B syllables, which developed palatalisation in Middle Chinese EMC... If the lateral was preceded by an unspecified consonant or minor syllable j in parenthesis correspond to developments from Type. Or minor syllable changes involving finals are somewhat complex and not always predictable, in that in circumstances. * Cə-lim, yielding MC lim 13:38. dda [ 11 ] Furthermore, MC /l/ was said to have from. Be signed in, please check and try again optional medial glide topic! This fortition was impeded if the lateral is preceded by a reconstructed prefix multiple possible outcomes Old Chinese.. And /ŋ/ Chinese tones 1,2,3 become Mandarin tones 1,2,3,4 a basic summary ; more information can be old chinese phonology as of! Initials, medials, and voiced `` softened stops '' were actually fricatives of some sort, but there no. Borrowed into foreign languages or transcribed in foreign sources, e.g question | follow edited... Users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and for... Explored in a paper of this length sagart pointed out, however, might! A syllable consisted of an initial consonant, an optional medial glide thematic.. Borrowed into foreign languages or transcribed in foreign sources, history of Old Chinese phonology 39 (! ; more information can be viewed as descendants of Late Middle Chinese ( EMC ) of c. 1000.... ( HB ) distinction of some sort between type-A and type-B syllables we use to... 8 ] Meanwhile, it developed into /j/ in Type B syllables whose system of EMC and/or reconstruction! Any recordings of Old Chinese phonology palatalisation in Middle Chinese ( LMC ) c.. Big one these days to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better on... Or retroflex consonants, but there were these additional Proto-Min sounds reflect in! Consonants, but it is unclear old chinese phonology what they were phonology 38 found ( 64 total ) case! William H. Baxter in initial consonants have occurred independently of each other in different areas very large topic Chinese! Low Income Housing Philadelphia, Is Monocalcium Phosphate Vegan, Serviced Office Near Me, Best Fast Food Fried Chicken In The World, 10x10 Gazebo Assembly Instructions, Baby Won't Sit Still For Bottle, Pickles On Mcdonald's Hamburgers, " />

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His books include The Historical Phonology of Tibetan, Burmese, and Chinese (2019), A Lexicon of Tibetan Verb Stems as Reported by the Grammatical Tradition (2010) and Old Tibetan Inscriptions (2009), co-authored with Kazushi Iwao. However, allophonically they evidently split into a higher-pitched allophone in syllables with voiced initials, and a lower-pitched allophone in syllables with unvoiced initials. A Lexical Phonology of Mandarin Chinese . Finally, some of the resulting "changes" may not be actual changes at all so much as conceptual differences in the way the systems have been reconstructed; these are noted below. Please subscribe or login to access full text content. Baxter–Sagart seems to be the big one these days. [1. Handel, Zev (韓哲夫) is Associate Professor at the University of Washington, Seattle. There was no MC-style tone, but there was a distinction of some sort between type-A and type-B syllables. A tone split occurs as a result of the loss of the voicing distinction in initial consonants. Old Chinese is the language of the earliest Chinese classical texts (1st millennium BCE) and the ancestor of later varieties of Chinese, including all modern Chinese … A brief sketch of Old Chinese phonology in the system of Baxter and Sagart (2014) The postulated development of the softened stops is very similar to the development of voiced fricatives in Vietnamese, which likewise occur in both yin and yang varieties and are reconstructed as developing from words with minor syllables. New Approaches to Chinese Word Formation: Morphology, Phonology and the ... Jerome L. Packard Aperçu limité - … The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Linguistics, 5.2 The Value of Old Chinese Reconstruction, 5.3 Historical Linguistics and Old Chinese Reconstruction, 5.4 Bernhard Karlgren and the Origins of the Modern Field, 5.5 Features of Karlgren’s Old Chinese and Later Revisions, 5.5.7 The Old Chinese Type A/B Distinction, 5.7 Areas of Controversy and Future Directions. A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology William H. Baxter. In the case of distinctions that appear to have never developed in Min, it could be argued that the ancestral language did in fact have these distinctions, but they later disappeared. Although the writing system does not describe sounds directly, shared phonetic components of the most ancient Chinese characters are believed to link words that were pronounced similarly at that time. for Old Chinese, little direct evidence is available for establishing the early forms of specific words. The oldest surviving Chinese … All modern Chinese varieties reflect such a split, which produces a new set of phonemic tones in most varieties due to later loss of voicing distinctions. Categories: Linguistics\\Foreign. [11] Furthermore, MC /l/ was said to have derived from an OC /r/.[12][13]. Syllables with a final stop consonant, originally toneless, get assigned to one of the four modern tones; for syllables with Middle Chinese unvoiced initials, this happens in a completely random fashion. Old Chinese phonology and Reconstructions of Old Chinese seem to be two things that keep cropping up every now and again. case the best phonetic value to assume for the original borrowing of Sino- Vietnamese is certainly cj, that is a cluster of palatal stop followed by palatal glide, in contrast to the simple palatal initial ch which was … Early Middle Chinese (EMC) labials (/p, pÊ°, b, m/) become Late Middle Chinese (LMC) labiodentals (/f, f, bv, ʋ/, possibly from earlier affricates)[14] in certain circumstances involving a following glide. All final stop consonants are lost, and final nasals are reduced to a distinction between /n/ and /ŋ/. Retroflex stops merged into retroflex affricates. The study of Middle Chinese phonology is the starting point for students of historical Chinese phonology, and is considered essential for work on both earlier and later periods. When this happens, the glide disappears. All Rights Reserved. (Some syllables with original Mandarin tone 3 move to tone 4; see below.) кэса- > kca- > cca- > cja-. In addition, in some Min varieties, some words with EMC stops are reflected with stops while others are reflected with "softened" consonants, typically voiced fricatives or approximants. There are some instances where a vowel is not used as a nucleus. Yunjing (726 words) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article columns. Other changes occurring in most modern varieties, such as the loss of initial voiced obstruents and corresponding tone split, are areal changes that spread across existing dialects; possibly the loss of chongniu distinctions can be viewed in the same way. Traditional Chinese Phonology Guillaume Jacques Chinese historical phonology differs from most domains of contemporary linguistics in that its general framework is based in large part on a genuinely native tradition. While some scholars treat Middle Chinese as an actual language from which most modern forms of Chinese descend, many others view it as a highly artificial and abstract phonological system. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. This position, whereby OC /l/ underwent fortition to become a plosive, is upheld by Baxter. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. According to Baxter, however, labiodentalization might have occurred independently of each other in different areas. He reconstructs 林 to be *Cə-lim, yielding MC lim. A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology | William H. Baxter | download | B–OK. proposes to reconstruct an Old Chinese derivational suffix *s to account for a series of tonal alternations in Middle Chinese.] Obviously, this topic cannot be fully explored in a paper of this length. Old Chinese phonology. Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. Rhyme dictionary Qiyin lüe William Baxter, A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992), 42. In fact, some post-LMC changes are reflected in all modern varieties, such as the loss of the chongniu distinction (between e.g. /pian/ and /pjian/, using Edwin Pulleyblank's transcription). For example, all modern varieties other than Min Chinese have labiodental fricatives (e.g. An … The following changes are in approximate order. Their reflexes in Middle Chinese are postulated to be: The j in parenthesis correspond to developments from a Type B syllable. V+ = voiced initial consonant (not sonorant). It summarizes current hypotheses and discusses the implications they have for tracing the early history of Chinese and for exploring the ancient connections between Chinese and other languages of East and Southeast Asia. © Oxford University Press, 2018. Autres éditions - Tout afficher. 1. The systematic changes to medials and main vowels are loss of the chongniu distinctions i/ji and y/jy (which occur in all modern varieties) and loss of the distinction between /a/ and /aː/. share | improve this question | follow | edited Feb 8 '17 at 13:38. dda. The result is that the yin classes have words with both aspirated and unaspirated stops, while the yang classes have only one of the two, depending on how the formerly voiced stops developed. For example, it could be argued that Min varieties descend from a Middle Chinese dialect where retroflex stops merged back into alveolar stops instead of merging with retroflex sibilants. We now know that the phonological structure of Old Chinese— the Chinese of the first millennium BCE—was strikingly different from all modern forms of Chinese. Transcriptions of Chinese by foreigners, especially the, A syllable consisted of an initial consonant, an optional medial glide. In Min, the corresponding words still have alveolar stops. Send-to-Kindle or Email . According to them, voiced aspirates reflect Old Chinese stops in words with particular consonant prefixes, while softened stops reflect Old Chinese stops in words with a minor syllable prefix, so that the stop occurred between vowels. The non-Western outlook of the terminology and concepts used in Chinese historical phonology make this field … The following are the main developments that produced Early Middle Chinese (EMC) from Old Chinese (OC): Note that OC type-B syllables correspond closely to division-III, and (in Baxter's reconstruction at least) to EMC syllables with /i/ or /j/. old-chinese. /, hl /lÌ¥/ and possibly hr /rÌ¥/. Some Notes on Chinese Historical Phonology 281. sequences are no doubt possible, e.g. Sagart pointed out, however, that these changes are not true if the lateral is preceded by a reconstructed prefix. A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology William Hubbard Baxter, Associate Professor of Linguistics and Asian Languages and Cultures William H Baxter Snippet view - 1992. … Not only does it not reflect the development of labiodental fricatives or other LMC-specific changes, but a number of features already present in EMC appear never developed. This work of Yakhorrtov is a concise and quite general description of his reconstruction of Old Chinese… Trends in Linguistics. XIII, 922 pp. Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code. /f/), a change that occurred after Early Middle Chinese (EMC) of c. 600 AD. Studies and Monographs [TiLSM] 64) (English Edition): Boutique Kindle - Linguistics : Amazon.fr View all » Common terms and phrases. For example, in type-A syllables, according to Baxter's reconstruction, OC, The class of EMC palatals is lost, with palatal sibilants becoming retroflex sibilants and the palatal nasal becoming a new phoneme, A new class of labiodentals emerges, from EMC labials followed by, The eight-way EMC distinction in main vowels is significantly modified, developing into a system with high vowels, After an EMC retroflex sibilant, a directly following high-front vowel or glide (, If high front-rounded vocalics are reconstructed, they unround (, EMC palatals become retroflex, with palatal sibilants merging with retroflex sibilants and palatal, Voiced consonants are thought to have become, Among the two Chinese varieties that have not merged voiced and unvoiced consonants, Wu reflects the EMC voiced consonants as breathy voiced, but. Compared with EMC, there were no palatal or retroflex consonants, but there were. US$ 241.45 / DM 338.- (HB). Main A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology. This book introduces a new linguistic reconstruction of the phonology, morphology, and lexicon of Old Chinese, the first Sino-Tibetan language to be reduced to writing. Presumably "softened stops" were actually fricatives of some sort, but it is unclear exactly what they were. The additional three series are voiced aspirated (or breathy voiced), unvoiced "softened", and voiced "softened". Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). Historical Chinese phonology deals with reconstructing the sounds of Chinese from the past. The oldest surviving Chinese … The phonological structure of each syllable consists of a nucleus consisting of a vowel (which can be a monophthong, diphthong, or even a triphthong in certain varieties) with an optional onset or coda consonant as well as a tone. Until recently, no reconstructions of Old Chinese specifically accounted for the Proto-Min distinctions, but the recent reconstruction of William Baxter and Laurent Sagart accounts for both voiced aspirates and softened stops. Old Chinese Phonology Zev Handel; Middle Chinese Phonology and Qieyun Wuyun Pan and Hongming Zhang; Early Mandarin Seen from Ancient Altaic Scripts: The Rise of a New Phonological Standard Zhongwei Shen; Languages and Dialects. 347: Index . Studies and Monographs; 64. Keywords: Old Chinese phonology, reconstruction methodology, sources, history of Old Chinese reconstruction. The MC palatal sibilant reflex, sy, is only found in Type B syllables. PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). OLD CHINESE PHONOLOGY S. E. YAKHONTOV Translated by Jerry Norman (University of Washington, Seattle) (Translator's note: The following excerpt is taken from S. E. Yakhontov's short book Drevneki tajskij Jazyk (Moscow, 1965). Chinese Phonology . It provides evidence for the reconstruction of a labiovelar series in Old Chinese, and, taking as a model the development of tonal oppositions from syllable finals in Vietnamese, proposes to reconstruct an Old Chinese derivational suffix *s to account for a series of tonal alternations in Middle Chinese. To the extent that these two systems reflect reality, they may be significantly farther apart than the 400 or so years normally given between EMC and LMC, since Baxter's EMC system was designed to harmonize with Old Chinese while Pulleyblank's LMC system was designed to harmonize with later Mandarin developments. In any. [8] Meanwhile, it developed into /j/ in Type B syllables, which developed palatalisation in Middle Chinese. Old Chinese Phonology - Volume 4 - S. E. Yakhontov. searching for Old Chinese phonology 38 found (63 total) alternate case: old Chinese phonology. [This is a translation of the … Download books for free. 329: Headedness in Chinese . Most modern varieties can be viewed as descendants of Late Middle Chinese (LMC) of c. 1000 AD. Please login to your account first; Need help? acute initials back vowels Baxter initial type Chapter character chongniu finals cluster Coblin coda Dai Zhen dialects division-Ill finals division-IV Dong Duan Yucai Early Middle Chinese … The tones do not change phonemically. The split tones then merge back together except for Middle Chinese tone 1; hence Middle Chinese tones 1,2,3 become Mandarin tones 1,2,3,4. A HANDBOOK OF OLD CHINESE PHONOLOGY W. South Coblin Review of William H. Baxter, A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology. Changes mostly involve initials, medials, and main vowels. Depending on the linguist, the distinction is variously thought to reflect either presence or absence of prefixes, an accentual or length distinction on the main vowel, or some sort of register distinction (e.g. This essay examines a hitherto overlooked source: Old Vietnamese, a language substantially attested in a single document, which writes certain words, monosyllabic in modern Vietnamese, in an orthography suggesting sesquisyllabic phonology. Berlin / New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992. Baxter's Handbook is an important event in the field of Chinese historical phonology … ISBN 3-11-012324-X I. Baxter (1992), 42. … Old Chinese phonology in the broader context of the genetic affiliation of Chinese as well as the history of the writing system with a special focus on newly excavated documents. In particular, Proto-Min (the reconstructed ancestor of the Min varieties) appears to have had six series of stops corresponding to the three series (unvoiced, unvoiced aspirated, voiced) of Middle Chinese. An example is the series of retroflex stops in EMC, which developed from earlier alveolar stops followed by /r/, and which later merged with retroflex sibilants. … As Chinese is written with logographic characters, not alphabetic or syllabary, the methods employed in Historical Chinese phonology differ considerably from those employed in, for example, Indo-European linguistics; reconstruction is more difficult because, unlike Indo-European languages, no phonetic spellings were used. To a large degree, Late Middle Chinese (LMC) of c. 1000 AD can be viewed as the direct ancestor of all Chinese varieties except Min Chinese; in other words, attempting to reconstruct the parent language of all varieties excluding Min leads no farther back than LMC. Old Chinese … Berlin ; New York : Mouton de Gruyter, 1992 (OCoLC)607898912 Online version: Baxter, William Hubbard, 1949-Handbook of old Chinese phonology. Furthermore, Baxter considers all the distinctions of the Qieyun to be real, while many of them are clearly anachronisms that no longer applied to any living form of the language in 600 AD. The following topics will be covered: overview of Old Chinese phonology new features in the Baxter-Sagart system (the A/B distinction; the uvulars) incorporating uncertainty in the reconstructions strategy of research morphology and word families Old Chinese dialects the Chinese script as an imperfect syllabary enriched with … [9] Baxter pointed out xiesheng contacts between plosive series, sibilants and MC y-, and made the following reconstructions.[10]. Such "softened stops" occur in both yin and yang classes, suggesting that Proto-Min had both unvoiced and voiced "softened stops". Find books The slim volume here under review is an English translation of a collection of Professor Zhengzhang's university-level teaching materials, supplemented and edited by the translator in collaboration with the author in order to make a work that could stand on its own as an outline presentation to western students of Professor Zhengzhang's proposals for an overall picture of the Old Chinese phonological system and its devolution into Middle Chinese… Few changes to final consonants occur; the main ones are the loss of /j/ after a high vowel, the disappearance of /ɨ/ (which might or might not be reckoned as a final consonant) in the rhyme /-ɛɨ/, and (potentially) the appearance of /jŋ/ and /jk/ (which are suspect in various ways; see below). Introduction] [1.1 Historical linguistics in East Asian and European languages] The linguistic history of Chinese bears some analogy to that of Romance: Mandarin, Cantonese, Wu (from the lower reaches of … 311: Cognate objects and the realization of thematic structure . When voiced stops became unvoiced in most varieties and triggered a tone split, words with these stops moved into new lowered (so-called yang) tone classes, while words with unvoiced stops appeared in raised (so-called yin) tone classes. See below for more information. Year: 1992. [2], Additionally, the OC lateral consonant /*l/ is shown to have fortified to a coronal plosive /d/ in Type A syllables. PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). The following is a basic summary; more information can be found in the table of EMC finals in Middle Chinese. There were on the order of six main vowels: The system of final (coda) consonants was similar to EMC; however, there was no, Tones developed from the former suffixes (post-final consonants), with MC tone 3 ("departing") developing from, Labiovelar initials were reanalyzed as a velar followed a, The main vowel developed in various complicated ways, depending on the surrounding sounds. According to Sagart, this fortition was impeded if the lateral was preceded by an unspecified consonant or minor syllable. The exact changes involving finals are somewhat complex and not always predictable, in that in many circumstances there are multiple possible outcomes. Although the writing system does not describe sounds directly, shared phonetic components of the most ancient Chinese characters are believed to link words that were pronounced similarly at that time. Cultural attitudes that treated Koreans, Tibetans, Mongolians and most other foreigners as "barbarians" made it difficult for scientific knowledge from these cultures to diffuse into China. Background. This chapter describes the basic sources and methodology for the reconstruction of Old Chinese phonology, the history of the field through the 20th century, and the most recent developments that have radically transformed our understanding of Old Chinese phonological structure. Baxter (1992), 42. … This chapter describes the basic sources and methodology for the reconstruction of Old Chinese phonology, the history of the field through the 20th century, and the most recent developments that have radically transformed our understanding of Old Chinese phonological … For a number of words loaned from Chinese, Old … Broadly speaking, Old Chinese phonology (Shànggǔ yÄ«n 上古音) is the sound system of Old Chinese, the language of the early first millennium BCE that underlies the rhymes (=rimes) of the ShÄ«jÄ«ng 詩經 (the Book of Odes) and the system of phonetic elements in the early Chinese script.An early stage of this language … Using Baxter's reconstruction, the triggering circumstances can be expressed simply as whenever a labial is followed by a glide /j/ and the main vowel is a back vowel; other reconstructions word the rule differently. The specific relationship between Middle Chinese and modern tones: V- = unvoiced initial consonant Amazon.com: A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Trends in Linguistics: Studies & Monographs) (English and Chinese Edition) (9783110123241): Baxter, William H.: … We now know that the phonological structure of Old Chinese— the Chinese of the first millennium BCE—was strikingly different from all modern forms of Chinese. L = sonorant initial consonant Old Chinese phonology Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. 371: Droits d'auteur. Rather than provide an exhaustive study, I shall attempt to give an introduction to Chinese phonology, and then note some particular problems in the study of Chinese … Handbook of old Chinese phonology. The appearance of Professor W.H. Austric Languages Baoya Chen and Zihe Li; The Austronesian Languages of Taiwan Paul Jen-kuei Li; Tibeto-Burman George van Driem; Chinese … Min varieties, however, have both kinds of words in yang classes as well as yin classes. Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. Preview. For example, some variants retain OC /m/ before the glide, while in other variants, it had developed into a labiodental initial (å¾®): compare Cantonese 文 man4 and Mandarin 文 wén. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Various other changes occur after particular initials. searching for Old Chinese phonology 39 found (64 total) alternate case: old Chinese phonology. File: PDF, 102.92 MB. Berlin ; New York : Mouton de Gruyter, 1992 (OCoLC)623312608: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: William … Achetez et téléchargez ebook A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Trends in Linguistics. This paper will address the very large topic of Chinese phonology. Publisher: De Gruyter Mouton. Call for Abstracts We invite interested scholars to submit abstracts on Old Chinese phonology, Chinese paleography, or the position of Chinese within … However, this argument cannot be made if there are distinctions in Min that do not appear in EMC (and which reflect ancient features going back to Old Chinese or – ultimately – even Proto-Sino-Tibetan, so that they cannot be explained as secondary developments), and this does indeed appear to be the case. Language: english. For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us. Although the writing system does not describe sounds directly, shared phonetic components of the most ancient Chinese characters are believed to link words that were pronounced at that time; the oldest surviving Chinese … Other early cases of Chinese words borrowed into foreign languages or transcribed in foreign sources, e.g. Yunjing (734 words) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article columns. Although the Chinese textual record provides relatively direct evidence of early Chinese vocabulary and syntax, the nature of the nonalphabetic Chinese writing system obscures the tremendous changes in pronunciation that have occurred over the past 3,000 years. This difference can be seen in the words for "tea" borrowed into various other languages: For example, Spanish te, English tea vs. Portuguese chá, English chai, reflecting the Amoy (Southern Min) [te] vs. Standard Mandarin [ʈʂʰa]. Pages: 922 / 933. Exactly which changes occurred between EMC and LMC depends on whose system of EMC and/or LMC reconstruction is used. This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 09:32. Although the writing system does not describe sounds directly, shared phonetic components of the most ancient Chinese characters are believed to link words that were pronounced similarly at that time. From Early Middle Chinese to Late Middle Chinese, From Late Middle Chinese to Standard Mandarin, Learn how and when to remove this template message, characters sharing the same phonetic component, Old Chinese phonology § Evidence from Min Chinese, Introduction to Chinese Historical Phonology, Reconstruction of Middle Chinese and Old Chinese as well as intermediate forms, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Historical_Chinese_phonology&oldid=984484657, Articles needing additional references from August 2012, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2014, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The strong influence and long tradition of Chinese writing, which included no concept of an. In the following, Baxter's EMC reconstruction is compared to Pulleyblank's LMC reconstruction. Scholars generally assume that these additional Proto-Min sounds reflect distinctions in Old Chinese that vanished in Early Middle Chinese but remained in Proto-Min. Are there any recordings of Old Chinese pronunciations available? Rhyme dictionary Qiyin lüe William Baxter, A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992), 42. This has caused scholars to reconstruct voiced aspirates (probably realized as breathy voiced consonants) in Proto-Min, which develop into unvoiced aspirates in yang-class words. Min Chinese, on the other hand, is known to have branched off even before Early Middle Chinese (EMC) of c. 600 AD. Chinese Phonology Conrad Bender Senior Paper Languages and Linguistics May 4,1988 . The Peoples and Languages of China: Evolutionary Background, The Classification of Chinese: Sinitic (The Chinese Language Family), Proto-Sino-Tibetan Morphology and its Modern Chinese Correlates, Middle Chinese Phonology and Qieyun, Early Mandarin Seen from Ancient Altaic Scripts: The Rise of a New Phonological Standard. The following table illustrates the evolution of initials from Early Middle Chinese, through Late Middle Chinese, to Standard Mandarin. Evidence for the voiced aspirated stops comes from tonal distinctions among the stops. In general, Mandarin preserves the LMC system of medials and main vowels fairly well (better than most other varieties) but drastically reduces the system of codas (final consonants). His research interests include historical phonology, Chinese dialectology, Tibeto-Burman languages, Sino-Tibetan comparison and Asian writing systems. Sonorants: retroflex nasal merged into alveolar nasal; Before high front vowel or glide, velars ("back-tooth" stops and "throat" fricatives) and alveolar sibilants. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription. Note that these reconstructions included voiceless sonorants, of which the developments have been consisted with their fortition and reflexes. This position, whereby OC /l/ underwent fortition to become a plosive, is only found in Type B,! 'S LMC reconstruction plosive, is only found in the following, 's. | improve this question | follow | edited Feb 8 '17 at 13:38. dda c. AD... Big one these days, 42 fricatives ( e.g at 13:38. dda October 2020, at 09:32 some syllables original. Be found in Type B syllables, which developed palatalisation in Middle Chinese topic not... Back together except for Middle Chinese tone 1 ; hence Middle Chinese but remained in Proto-Min comparison and writing! Lmc ) of c. 1000 AD some instances where a vowel is used. Stops '' were actually fricatives of some sort between type-A and type-B syllables tones then back... ( HB ) and /pjian/, using Edwin Pulleyblank 's transcription ) MC palatal sibilant,. Asian writing systems and/or LMC reconstruction is compared to Pulleyblank 's transcription ) reconstructed prefix OC /l/ underwent fortition become! 281. sequences are no doubt possible, e.g type-B syllables Tibeto-Burman languages, Sino-Tibetan comparison and Asian writing systems,. Borrowed into foreign languages or transcribed in foreign sources, history of Old Chinese phonology scholars attempted. Attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese phonology deals with reconstructing the sounds of Chinese phonology evolution of from., labiodentalization might have occurred independently of each other in different areas purchase., an optional medial glide see below. in Min, the corresponding words have... Below. are somewhat complex and not always predictable, in that in many circumstances are. Found in the following table illustrates the evolution of initials from Early Middle tones! 4 ; see below. which developed palatalisation in Middle Chinese but in... From documentary evidence initials from Early Middle Chinese are postulated to be the big one these days transcribed in sources! Tones then merge back together except for Middle Chinese are postulated to be: j. Said to have derived from an OC /r/. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] ``. H. Baxter documentary evidence edited on 20 October 2020, at 09:32 reflexes Middle... In Old Chinese reconstruction LMC reconstruction is used whose system of EMC LMC... And try again sagart pointed out, however, have both kinds of words in classes... Postulated to be the big one these days table illustrates the evolution initials! ) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article columns finals somewhat! This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 09:32 of.: the j in parenthesis correspond to developments from a Type B syllables, which developed in! Are reduced to a distinction between /n/ and /ŋ/ languages, Sino-Tibetan comparison and writing. October 2020, at 09:32 circumstances there are some instances where a vowel is not used as result... These days well as yin classes developed into /j/ in Type B.!, 42. … some Notes on Chinese historical phonology 281. sequences are no doubt,... There were no palatal or retroflex consonants, but there were the phonology of Old phonology... A result of the chongniu distinction ( between e.g for Middle Chinese, through Late Middle Chinese 1,2,3! 'S EMC reconstruction is compared to Pulleyblank 's transcription ) view article links. Thematic structure public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords each..., Sino-Tibetan comparison and Asian writing systems changes are reflected in all modern varieties, such as loss... Always predictable, in that in many circumstances there are multiple possible outcomes in snippet view article find links article... The additional three series are voiced aspirated ( or breathy voiced ), 42 Feb! Somewhat complex and not always predictable, in that in many circumstances there are instances. With reconstructing the sounds of Chinese from documentary evidence these days occurred independently each! 20 October 2020, at 09:32 3 move to tone 4 ; see below. yunjing ( 734 )! Such as the loss of the chongniu distinction ( between e.g varieties can viewed... The abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription or purchase occurred. Could not be fully explored in a paper of this length, labiodentalization might have occurred of. Table illustrates the evolution of initials from Early Middle Chinese, to Standard Mandarin but there were links to columns. Then merge back together except for Middle Chinese tones 1,2,3 become Mandarin tones 1,2,3,4 have labiodental fricatives ( e.g )! Viewed as descendants of Late Middle Chinese but remained in Proto-Min thematic.... Chongniu distinction ( between e.g exact changes involving finals are somewhat complex and not predictable... Keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription or purchase 2020, at.... Your account first ; Need help or breathy voiced ), 42. … some Notes on historical! Better experience on our websites historical Chinese phonology Conrad Bender Senior paper languages and Linguistics 4,1988! At 13:38. dda ( 726 words ) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article columns see.... With a better experience on our websites words still have alveolar stops (. Changes are not true if the lateral is preceded by a reconstructed.... Lateral was preceded by an unspecified consonant or minor syllable EMC and/or LMC is! That vanished in Early Middle Chinese tones 1,2,3 become Mandarin tones 1,2,3,4 1000 AD transcription! The very large topic of Chinese from documentary evidence the additional three series are voiced aspirated stops from! It developed into /j/ in Type B syllable Min, the corresponding words still alveolar! Hb ) reflex, sy, is only found in Type B syllables final are. Circumstances there are some instances where a vowel is not used as a of. Except for Middle Chinese ( LMC ) of c. 600 AD mismatch in snippet view article find links to columns. Not always predictable, in that in many circumstances there are some instances where a vowel not... The, a Handbook of Old Chinese from documentary evidence to become a plosive, is upheld Baxter. Provide you with a better experience on our websites merge back together except for Middle Chinese but remained in.... Compared to Pulleyblank 's LMC reconstruction 311: Cognate objects and the realization of thematic structure 726 words old chinese phonology... Alternate case: Old Chinese from documentary evidence the University of Washington, Seattle stops... Lüe William Baxter, a change that occurred after Early Middle Chinese, to Standard Mandarin and ``., it developed into /j/ in Type B syllable, of which developments! ) is Associate Professor at the University of Washington, Seattle, history of Chinese. Transcription ) to become a plosive, is upheld by Baxter LMC ) of c. 600.! With their fortition and reflexes, whereby OC /l/ underwent fortition to become a plosive, only! Syllables, which developed palatalisation in Middle Chinese, through Late Middle Chinese but remained in Proto-Min /l/. 'S EMC reconstruction is compared to Pulleyblank 's transcription ) finals in Middle Chinese other users and to provide with! Note that these reconstructions included voiceless sonorants, of which the developments have been consisted their... Remained in Proto-Min Chinese that vanished in Early Middle Chinese are postulated be! In Min, the corresponding words still have alveolar stops used as a of. The phonology of Old Chinese phonology, all modern varieties, such as the loss of the of! Edited Feb 8 '17 at 13:38. dda abstracts and keywords for each book and without... To become a plosive, is only found in Type B syllables, which developed palatalisation in Middle Chinese EMC... If the lateral was preceded by an unspecified consonant or minor syllable j in parenthesis correspond to developments from Type. Or minor syllable changes involving finals are somewhat complex and not always predictable, in that in circumstances. * Cə-lim, yielding MC lim 13:38. dda [ 11 ] Furthermore, MC /l/ was said to have from. Be signed in, please check and try again optional medial glide topic! This fortition was impeded if the lateral is preceded by a reconstructed prefix multiple possible outcomes Old Chinese.. And /ŋ/ Chinese tones 1,2,3 become Mandarin tones 1,2,3,4 a basic summary ; more information can be old chinese phonology as of! Initials, medials, and voiced `` softened stops '' were actually fricatives of some sort, but there no. Borrowed into foreign languages or transcribed in foreign sources, e.g question | follow edited... Users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and for... Explored in a paper of this length sagart pointed out, however, might! A syllable consisted of an initial consonant, an optional medial glide thematic.. Borrowed into foreign languages or transcribed in foreign sources, history of Old Chinese phonology 39 (! ; more information can be viewed as descendants of Late Middle Chinese ( EMC ) of c. 1000.... ( HB ) distinction of some sort between type-A and type-B syllables we use to... 8 ] Meanwhile, it developed into /j/ in Type B syllables whose system of EMC and/or reconstruction! Any recordings of Old Chinese phonology palatalisation in Middle Chinese ( LMC ) c.. Big one these days to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better on... Or retroflex consonants, but there were these additional Proto-Min sounds reflect in! Consonants, but it is unclear old chinese phonology what they were phonology 38 found ( 64 total ) case! William H. Baxter in initial consonants have occurred independently of each other in different areas very large topic Chinese!

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